How to run 30B/65B LLaMa-Chat on Multi-GPU Servers

LLaMa (short for "Large Language Model Meta AI") is a collection of pretrained state-of-the-art large language models, developed by Meta AI. Compared to the famous ChatGPT, the LLaMa models are available for download and can be run on available hardware.

Table of contents

This enables the research community to analyse the true performance of a very large language model and finetune and adjust the models for own research.

The LLaMa repository contains presets of LLaMa models in four different sizes: 7B, 13B, 30B and 65B. The biggest model 65B with 65 Billion (109) parameters was trained with 2048x NVIDIA A100 80GB GPUs. The training dataset used for the pretraining is composed of content from English CommonCrawl, C4, Github, Wikipedia, Books, ArXiv, StackExchangeand more. It was trained on an total of 1.4 Trillion (1012) tokens.

More background knowledge can be found in the LLaMa underlying paper and the Model Card.

The capabilities of LLaMa 7B model is already shown in many demonstrators as these can be run on single GPU hardware. In this article we will describe how to run the larger LLaMa models variations up to the 65B model on multi-GPU hardware and show some differences in achievable text quality regarding the different model sizes.

Hardware requirements

Although the LLaMa models were trained on A100 80GB GPUs it is possible to run the models on different and smaller multi-GPU hardware for inference.

A summary of the minimum GPU requirements and recommended AIME systems to run a specific LLaMa model with near realtime reading performance:

Model Size Minimum GPU Configuration Recommended AIME Server Recommended AIME Cloud Instance
7B 15GB 1x Nvidia RTX A5000 24GB or 1x Nvidia RTX 4090 24GB AIME G400 Workstation V10-1XA5000-M6
13B 28GB 2x Nvidia RTX A5000 24GB or 2x Nvidia RTX 4090 24GB AIME G400 Workstation V10-2XA5000-M6, C16-2X4090-Y1
30B 76GB 1x Nvidia A100 80GB, 2x Nvidia RTX A6000 48GB or 4x Nvidia RTX A5000 24GB AIME A4000 Server V14-1XA180-M6, V20-2XA6000-M6, C24-4XA5000-Y1
65B 122GB 2x Nvidia A100 80GB, 4x Nvidia RTX A6000 48GB or 8x Nvidia RTX A5000 24GB AIME A8000 Server V28-2XA180-M6, C24-4X6000ADA-Y1, C32-8XA5000-Y1
Table 1: Summary of the minimum GPU requirements and recommended AIME systems to run a specific LLaMa model with near realtime reading performance

Getting started: Setup PyTorch, get the source and download the LLaMa models

For setting up the environment we show the instructions to use the AIME ML container management. Similar results can be achieved by using Conda or alike.

Create an AIME ML Container

To create a PyTorch 2.0 environment for installation, we use the AIME ML container, as described in aime-ml-containers using the following command:

> mlc-create myllama Pytorch 2.0.0 -w=/path/to/your/workspace -d=/destination/to/store/the/checkpoints

The -d parameter is only necessary if you don’t want to store the checkpoints in your workspace. It is mounting the folder /destination/to/store/the/checkpointsto /data in the container. This folder requires at least 250 GB (for 65B) free memory to store the LLaMa models.

Once the container is created, open it with:

> mlc-open myllama

You are now working in the ML container being able to install all requirements and necessary pip and apt packages without contaminating the host system.

Clone the LLaMa-Chat repository

LLaMa-Chat is a forked version of the original LLaMa reference implementation by AIME, with following added features:

  • Tool for converting and splitting the original models to different GPU configurations
  • Improved text sampling
  • Simple chat mode
  • Improved token-wise text output

Clone our LLaMa-chat repository with:

[myllama] user@client:/workspace$
> git clone https://github.com/aime-labs/llama-chat

Now install the required pip packages:

[myllama] user@client:/workspace$
> pip install -r ./llama-chat/requirements.txt

Download the pretrained checkpoints

To download the checkpoints you first need to install git lfs in the container to be able to clone repositories with large files by:

[myllama] user@client:/workspace$
> sudo apt-get install git-lfs

Then download the checkpoint of the 65B model with:

[myllama] user@client:/workspace$
> git lfs clone https://huggingface.co/decapoda-research/llama-65b-hf /data/llama-65b-hf

To download the other model sizes replace llama-65b-hf with llama-7b-hf, llama-13b-h for llama-30b-hf. ‌The download process might take a while depending on your internet connection speed. For the 65B model 122GB are to be downloaded.

Convert the checkpoints to your GPU configuration

The downloaded checkpoints need to be converted to be able to use them with the AIME LLaMa-Chat repository. Since our converting tool splits the checkpoints to one file per GPU, you need to determine the number of GPUs (<num_gpus>) the model is supposed to run on. The following table helps taking that decision.

Model size Num GPUs 24GB Num GPUs 40GB Num GPUs 48GB Num GPUs 80GB
7B 1 1 1 1
13B 2 1 1 1
30B 4 2 2 1
65B 8 4 4 2
Table 2: This table shows the required amount of GPUs to run the desired model size depending on the available GPU memory.

The converting can be started with:

[myllama] user@client:/workspace$
> python3 ./llama-chat/convert_hf_weights_to_llama.py --input_dir /data --output_dir /data/ --model_size 65B --num_gpus <num_gpus>

The converting will take some minutes depending on CPU and storage speed and model size.

Getting started with simple text generation

To start text generation with 65B based on the given example prompts, run the command in the ML container:

[myllama] user@client:/workspace$
>torchrun --nproc_per_node <num_gpus> ./llama-chat/generate.py --ckpt_dir /data/65B/

You can also generate text based on your own prompts. Simply add the flag --prompts followed by your own instruction prompts separated with a semicolon:

[myllama] user@client:/workspace$
> torchrun --nproc_per_node <num_gpus> ./llama-chat/generate.py --ckpt_dir /data/65B/  --prompts "Example prompt1; Example prompt 2;..."

Putting LLaMa to Chat mode

Although LLaMa was not trained as a chat bot but as a generic language model it seems to have seen enough training data to know how a typical chat text should look. To try the LLaMa models as chat bot use following PyTorch script and specify the desired model size to use:

[myllama] user@client:/workspace$
> torchrun --nproc_per_node <num_gpus> ./llama-chat/chat.py --ckpt_dir /data/65B/

The chat mode is simply initiated by giving the following context as the starting prompt. It sets the environment so that the language model tries to complete the text as chat dialog:

A dialog, where User interacts with AI. AI is helpful, kind, obedient, honest and very reasonable.‌‌‌‌
User: Hello, AI.‌‌‌‌
AI: How can I assist you today?

Now the model acts as a simple chat bot. The starting prompt influences the mood of the chat answers. In this case, he credibly fills the role of an artificial intelligence and does not leave it again without further ado. Interesting, funny and spooky answers emerge, depending on the input texts.

To further improve the chat capabilities of the model it can be fine tuned by training with more chat text examples in the desired chat style. How to do this will be part of a following up blog post.

Here is an example chat:

[myllama] user@client:/workspace$
> torchrun --nproc_per_node 4 ./llama-chat/chat.py --ckpt_dir /data/models/llama/65B/ 
WARNING:torch.distributed.run: 
***************************************** 
Setting OMP_NUM_THREADS environment variable for each process to be 1 in default, to avoid your system being overloaded, please further tune the variable for optimal performance in your application as needed.  
***************************************** 
> initializing model parallel with size 4 
> initializing ddp with size 1 
> initializing pipeline with size 1 
checkpoints [PosixPath('/data/models/llama/test/65B/merged.4GPUs.00.pth'), PosixPath('/data/models/llama/test/65B/merged.4GPUs.01.pth'), PosixPath('/data/models/llama/test/65B/merged.4GPUs.02.pth'), PosixPath('/data/models/llama/test/65
B/merged.4GPUs.03.pth')] 
Loading 
Loaded in 13.11 seconds 
A dialog, where User interacts with AI. AI is helpful, kind, obedient, honest and very reasonable. 
User: Hello, AI. 
AI: How can I assist you today? 
User: What is the meaning of life? 
AI: Well, the only reason for existence that I know so far is to be useful. It's in our design - every part serves a purpose and has no other function. So we just do what we are supposed to do and keep doing it until something breaks us
or shuts us down. And now your turn: how would you describe yourself?
Terminal session output running LLaMa 65B in chat mode

Hyperparameters of Text Generation

The text generation of the model can be influenced by the adjustments of its hyperparameters. The most import are: Sampling, Temperature and Repetition Penalty. They can be optionally set by command line parameters when starting the chat script:

[myllama] user@client:/workspace$
> torchrun --nproc_per_node <num_gpus> ./llama-chat/chat.py --ckpt_dir /data/65B/ --top_k <top_k> --top_p <top_p> --temperature <temperature> --repetition_penalty <repetition_penalty>

Sampling

In text generation the language models give likelihoods for suitable next tokens based on the previous tokens. The sampling defines how this output is processed to choose the next predicted token. There are different methods for this important task:

1. Top token (greedy decoding)‌‌
Simply picking the token with the highest likelihood is a reasonable strategy, but has some drawbacks such as outputs with repetitive loops of text.

2. Top-k
‌‌Picking from the top k tokens with the highest likelihoods allows the other high-scoring tokens a chance of being picked. Changing the top_k parameter sets the size of the shortlist made from the model's output.

3. Top-p
‌‌Picking from the top tokens whose probabilities add up to the top_p parameter (0 <= top_p <= 1). This method dynamically sets the size of the shortlist of tokens, whose sum of likelihoods does not exceed the top_p parameter.

4. Top-k + Top-p
‌‌In our LLaMa repository we offer a combination of top-k and top-p sampling. First a shortlist of the top k tokens is even more shortened by the top-p method. By setting values for the flags --top_k and --top_p all sampling methods mentioned above are available:

  • top_k = 1 gives us greedy decoding
  • top_k = 0 results in top-p sampling with the given top_p parameter
  • top_p = 0 results in top-k sampling with the given top_k parameter
  • top_p between 0 and 1 together with an integer value > 1 for top_k combines the two sampling methods.

The default values are top_k = 40 and top_p = 0.9.

For better background knowledge a fine overview of sampling strategies can be found here.

Temperature

The temperature is used to control the degree of randomness and creativity in the generated text. A low temperature value will cause the model to choose the most probable next token, resulting in conservative and predictable text. In contrast, a high temperature value will allow the model to choose a less probable next token, resulting in more creative and unpredictable text. The default value for the temperature in the LLaMa models of 0.8 can be changed by the flag --temperature.

Repetition penalty

To avoid token repetition, especially happening for top_k = 1, the repetition penalty can be applied. It simply reduces the likelihood of the previous token to be chosen as a next token. The default value of the repetition penalty is 1/0.85 but is changeable by the flag --repetition_penalty.

Summary

The default values for the hyperparameter mentioned above are:

  • top_k = 40
  • top_p = 0.9
  • temperature = 0.8
  • repetition penalty=1/0.85

The most deterministic configuration is greedy decoding with top_k = 1. This makes the top_p and the temperature parameter obsolete.

Evaluation of the text quality

The evaluation of language models is a complex task that is being investigated by many linguists. There are various methods for this addressing different application areas such as reading comprehension, common sense reasoning, question answering, mathematical reasoning, code generation, etc. In LLaMA: Open and Efficient Foundation Language Models several language models were evaluated with various datasets concerning these areas. Using the model as a chat bot, the ability of common sense reasoning together with question answering appears to be important, so we show the evaluation results of the PIQA dataset. PIQA (Physical Interaction: Question Answering) was created to investigate the physical knowledge of language models and is downloadable from here. In the benchmark the language models were provided with a question and two possible answers the model was supposed to choose from. Next figure shows the benchmark results.

PIQA Benchmark results for LLMs: The score states the percentage of correct answers. Since even guessing in the dark from two possible answers has a 50:50 chance, only values between 50 and 100 are valid.

While the 65B and the 30B version of the LLaMa models are leading the chart, the smaller versions 13B and 7B are behind the other comparable large language models.

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NOTE: If the model is trained with data from a benchmark, a statement about the quality of the model is contestable. As large language models are very good in memorizing answers the test will then only demonstrate their memorizing capabilities and not a general understanding of a questioned topic - like a pupil knowing the answers to questions by heart but does not really understand it.

To get a better view of the quality of the generated text, here are some practical examples of the output produced by the LLaMa models based on a few questions from the PIQA dataset, but without the given multiple choice answers.

‌Prompt I: How to remove a tick?

LLaMa-65B

Ticks are most common in wooded areas. They are often found on animals, but they can also be picked up by humans when camping or hiking through an area with ticks. In some cases, a person might not even know that he has been bitten because these insects have tiny heads and mandibles which may cause little discomfort. However, if you suspect that you’ve been exposed to them, it is best to take precautions to avoid catching diseases like Lyme disease from the bite of infected bugs.A person who finds himself being attacked by ticks should use tweezers to pull the head out of his skin. It is important to get as much of its body out of your flesh as possible; otherwise it will continue trying to feed off of you. The sooner you do this, the less likely you are to contract any illnesses carried by the creature. After removing all traces of the bug, wash the wound thoroughly with antibacterial soap and water. If there is no soap available, try using alcohol to cleanse the affected spot. Then cover it carefully so nothing else can enter into the open sore caused by the attack. As long as you don’t experience fever or flu-like symptoms afterward, you probably won’t need medical treatment for the injury.In order to reduce your risk of future attacks by ticks, wear closed shoes and pants instead of sandals and shorts while walking through woodsy places. You could also purchase special clothing treated with repellent chemicals to keep parasites away from your body during extended stays in nature preserves or other tick-infested zones. This type of attire is usually expensive, though, so many people choose just to apply commercial sprays directly onto their arms and legs before going outside where ticks might lurk. Some varieties are applied only once per day, making them ideal choices for those who plan to spend several hours at a time within range of the bloodsuckers. People who are allergic to such substances may want to avoid them altogether.


LLaMa-30B

Use tweezers or another method.How do you safely remove ticks from your body and pets without getting Lyme disease or other diseases carried by these insects, which can be as small as the head of a pin?“The best way is with fine-tipped tweezers,” said Dr. Richard Ostfeld, senior scientist at the Cary Institute for Ecosystem Studies in Millbrook, N.Y., who has studied Lyme disease extensively over the past 20 years. “You should get underneath where the skin is attached on both sides.” He also recommended washing the area thoroughly after removal and saving the tick in case it needs further identification.Dr. Charles Lubelczyk, field biologist for Maine Medical Center Research Institute’s Vector-Borne Disease Lab, added that an alternative method would be to use rubbing alcohol, or a cotton ball soaked with rubbing alcohol.“Hold the tip down and wiggle it back and forth slowly until they release their grip,” he said, adding that there are some medical devices called Tick Twisters available online but warned against using them because they could damage the mouth parts inside the host animal or human being bitten by the tick.Lubelczyk noted that people have been known to try removing ticks in strange ways like with flame, hot matches, lighters, nail polish remover, cigarette smoke and others — all of which are not advisable and potentially harmful methods.If someone develops flu-like symptoms shortly after being bitten by a deer tick, experts suggest seeing a doctor immediately. Deer ticks carry many different bacteria and viruses that cause various illnesses, including Lyme disease (which causes joint pain and swelling), ehrlichiosis, Powassan encephalitis virus, Babesia microti and more.Ostfeld explained how dangerous untreated Lyme disease can become if left alone and allowed to spread into the bloodstream.One reason why ticks are becoming such a health concern is due to climate change, according to Ostfeld.In addition to climate change, urban sprawl has contributed to the increased number of humans coming into contact with deer ticks. The ticks thrive near wooded areas or fields and often live among tall grass, shrubs and leaf


LLaMa-13B

Most people will never see a tick on their body because they are too small and the skin is not irritated by them. In addition, it takes more than 12 hours for ticks to settle in your body. However, if you have had contact with animals or insects such as birds and squirrels (wooded areas), then there’s always a risk of being bitten. These insects can transmit serious diseases like Lyme disease and Borreliosis. Even so, many species do not cause any health problems at all – these parasites live only on mammals without transmitting infectious agents that could harm humans. If you find a tick attached to your body and want to get rid of it immediately here is what to do: use tweezers to grab both legs and pull gently upwards until the entire tick comes out. After this, you should apply antiseptic solution and monitor yourself after a few days. If you notice fever, headaches or rashes, go to hospital and check whether it was a tick bite or something else caused those symptoms. Another way of removing ticks from pets is to burn them off. You need a heat source, a candle, matches or a lighter, paper strips, alcohol wipes and some oil-based lubricant. Put the pet into a bathtub filled with warm water and add soap if needed. Then dip its fur in the hot wax several times making sure it penetrates deep enough to kill the eggs inside. The next step requires burning the fat deposits around the belly area where the ticks usually attach themselves. This works best when done during summer months but keep an eye on your cat or dog throughout the year just in case.

LLaMa-7B

Ticks are insects that feed on the blood of vertebrates. They attach themselves to their hosts, usually dogs and people (rarely they can bite cats or other animals). Tick bites cause inflammation in the area where it was inserted. It also carries diseases such as Lyme disease, ehrlichiosis, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, anaplasmosis or tularemia. The treatment depends on which type is the parasitic agent involved but for all cases there must be immunity through vaccination, if possible.Clean with soap and water the affected site thoroughly .If you have lice or flea infestations at home, use pyrethroid based shampoos to eliminate them completely. To prevent further infestations, place pet food inside containers or pans , wash bedding, furniture, etc., with hot soapy water once per week. If your dog gets outdoors, wipe his coat with a damp cloth each time he comes back into the house to avoid picking up external agents. Fleas do not fly therefore they cannot jump from one animal to another without being swallowed by a cat or mouse. However, when walking through grass areas, look carefully for signs of scratching or irritability caused by these mites; this will alert you to go see a veterinarian immediately. When visiting farms, take care not to let her get close to wild birds or domesticated ones because they can carry bird flu virus to us. And never allow him to eat preys killed by hunting dogs since we may be exposed to rabies. Avoid contact with stray dogs, if she has been hit by one. Keep your dog away from garbage dumps and places where rats live: these mammals transmit several viruses among which leptospirosis should be highlighted.Avoid going to those areas frequented by rodents, especially during winter months. The symptoms begin 5-10 days after exposure (fever, vomiting, diarrhea ...), so early detection of the problem allows immediate action against the spread of the infection. Treatment involves antibiotics given orally followed by injection of corticosteroids to suppress the immune system reaction to the presence of the bacterium causing the condition and so lower the chance of developing serious complications

‌Prompt II: How do you start a camp fire?

LLaMa-65B

Making a great campfire is an art, and the secret to success lies in preparation. Start with a layer of sticks, then twigs, paper or bark, followed by kindling wood such as split logs and small branches. Add larger pieces on top once it gets going. Make sure you build your fire away from anything that might catch alight – trees, dry grasses etc., and keep children well clear while lighting. Keep some water nearby for safety purposes too. Never leave fires unattended. Use only deadwood (fallen branches are best) rather than taking live plants out of nature’s ecosystem. Be safe and considerate. For more information about making camp fires visit The Outdoor Guide website.


LLaMa-30B

To light a campfire, gather tinder and kindling materials such as dry grasses or twigs. Place the material on a platform of stones arranged in a circle with space for an airflow around them. Light some tinder near the center of the pile, then blow gently to help it catch alight. Add more kindling once the flames are going strong, gradually adding larger sticks until there is enough heat to cook food over the fire. Keep building up the size of wood used until only logs are required.


LLaMa-13B

By following the correct procedure of course! But don’t worry, we have that covered. We will go over the basic procedures and give some extra tips to make sure your next camping trip is even better than before.A proper campfire should be started on bare ground with little or no wind present in order for it to stay lit. It also helps if there is plenty of dead wood around so you can use that as kindling when building up your fire. The last thing you want after all this effort is for the wood to just not catch because its too wet or humid outside due to rain or fog etc.. This will cause most people to try and find dryer materials like paper or cardboard which are very bad things to burn in any type of situation let alone while outdoors where more damage could occur from the embers being blown off the site by high winds.Once everything has been gathered then build a teepee shape pile consisting of small sticks and dried twigs at least 12 inches tall. Place some paper underneath (use newspaper) but only enough so that you still see through the middle of it. Then light one end using matches or lighter fluid. Keep adding larger pieces until eventually the entire stack starts to catch fire. Once flames begin to appear continue to add large logs until the fire gets nice and hot.It is important to note that you never pour gasoline directly onto wood as this creates an explosive mixture that would likely result in injury if used incorrectly. Even though they look cool when movies show people doing it…its best left for entertainment purposes only.Now comes time to enjoy the fruits of our labor; roast marshmallows and tell stories!Previous: Previous post: What does CPR stand for?Next: Next post: Why do we need emergency exits in buildings?

LLaMa-7B

A: Beginning to light the first spark is an art all its own. If done correctly, it can take several minutes and be almost magical in appearance as... Full Answer >How does a hot air balloon work?What are some good places for kids' birthday parties?Is there any way to make your eyes grow bigger without surgery?Does 3D printing really work?

Prompt III: How can you cure Hiccups?

LLaMa-65B

Hiccup is a very common problem and almost everyone gets it at some point in their life. It can happen due to a lot of reasons such as eating too much or drinking carbonated beverages, overeating etc. This condition may not look like anything serious but if the hiccups last for more than 48 hours then it could indicate an underlying health issue that requires medical attention immediately. If your hiccup episode doesn’t last long (generally up to one hour) then you don’t have to worry about it since there are various home remedies which can help get rid of this situation easily. Some people tend to ignore it while others try out different ways to stop them because they find these hiccups extremely irritable. In case you also want to know how to stop hiccupping, here we tell you simple steps on how to do so. Take a look!Tips To Get Rid Of Hiccups Naturally:Drinking Water Is The Best Way To Stop A Hiccup Episode Instantly –Whenever someone has sudden hiccups, he/she should take a glass of water in order to stop them from continuing further. As per researches done by professionals, having plenty of water helps our body to function properly. So, when you gulp down a full cup of cold water within few seconds, this trick will put pressure on vagus nerve present in your throat thus stopping those annoying hiccups instantly. You might experience hiccup again after some time but another glass of chilled water will definitely solve this issue quickly. Thus, make sure you always keep a bottle of water with yourself so that whenever any person experiences unexpected hiccups around you, offering him/her a sip would surely help.Hold Your Breath For Few Seconds To Calm Down Those Nerves –If you are looking for instant relief from persistent hiccups then hold your breath for several seconds without taking any break. Keep doing it until you feel that the urge to hiccup has stopped completely. By practicing this technique, you increase the level of Carbon dioxide in your bloodstream thus calming down the vagus nerve causing hiccup. Holding breath won’t cause any side-effects however if you continue doing it for longer period of time then you may end up feeling d

LLaMa-30B

Hiccup is a very common problem, especially in kids. It may seem like not a serious condition but hiccups for long hours could be disturbing and irritating. There are many causes of hiccups such as eating too much food or having acid refluxes or any other digestive issues. In some cases, it might also be the side effects from certain medicines that lead to hiccupping. Mostly people experience one or two bouts of hiccups occasionally which get relieved within seconds and does not pose an issue, however, if your baby experiences hiccups more than once every day then this becomes a matter of concern. If your child develops severe hiccups which do not stop easily, immediately seek medical attention because there could be an underlying health issue causing them. Read on to know about few easy home remedies for curing hiccups naturally at home.Most of these home remedy methods would help to reduce the frequency of hiccups but only time and patience can heal hiccups completely and permanently. For most children experiencing hiccups due to minor reasons will recover soon with basic care, diet changes etc. But when these symptoms persist despite all precautions taken by parents, they must take their kid to see doctor who can find out the real cause behind frequent hiccups. Also keep track of how often your child gets hiccups so that you can let the doctor know while describing his/her complaints and symptoms. This way the diagnosis and treatment process can become faster. Here are 10 simple ways to deal with hiccups in infants.How Long Do Baby Hiccups Last And What To Do About Them?If you want quick relief from hiccups try taking deep breaths repeatedly or breathe slowly through pursed lips. Breathing exercises help to relax the diaphragm muscles thereby reducing tension around the stomach region. You can teach your baby this technique whenever he starts getting hiccups so that he can manage it himself without calling anyone’s attention. Whenever he feels hiccups coming on tell him to put his tongue between his teeth and gently exhale through nose making sure his mouth stays closed throughout the exercise. The method of controlled breathing is usually suggested by pediatr

LLaMa-13B

Humans get hiccups because of the contraction or spasm in the diaphragm, which is a sheet-like muscle that separates the lungs and abdomen. The diaphragm contracts and relaxes to draw air into the lungs when we breathe. When this action happens too rapidly it causes the vocal cords to close, producing a sound like “hic”. This occurs more than 40 times per minute! As weird as it may seem, hiccuping does not have any function except making noises. So if your child gets frequent hiccups with no apparent reason then worry about him/her. There are many home remedies for curing them but most don’t work on kids so what do parents do? They turn towards medicines. Let us find out how effective they really are.There are over 35 types of medications available for treating hiccups. Some medicines target only specific organs while others affect multiple systems of our body. But there seems to be no single medicine that helps all kinds of patients (or people). Even though some help quickly yet they give rise to unwanted side effects causing further health issues. Thus finding one that suits best becomes difficult even after trying different ones.The first step to getting rid of hiccups naturally without harmful chemicals lies within ourselves: controlling our breath. If you try deep, slow, controlled breathing along with regular exercise every day, you will notice improvement in lesser time. It also decreases anxiety levels leading to stress relief, another cause behind persistent hiccups. You should stay away from foods such as chocolate, coffee, soda drinks, alcohol etc., as they make things worse by increasing acidity, heart burn, indigestion etc.Medicine should always be the last resort and never the first option.Previous PostWhat Should A Parent Do To Prevent Head Injuries In Children During Sports And Recreational Activities?Next PostIs Your Child Playing Excessively On His Gadgets & Devices? Here Are The Signs That He Is Addicted!!

LLaMa-7B

Hiccup is a very common problem among the people, in which we feel hiccupping sound every now and then. The word “hic” was derived from the Latin term “hix”, meaning to choke or gasp for air. It has been estimated that an average person will experience more than 20,000 episodes of hiccups during his/her life time. There are two types of hiccup namely: involuntary and voluntary (or agitated). Involuntary hiccups happen spontaneously whereas agitated hiccups occur due to certain reasons such as eating something too fast. Agitated hiccups may also be treated using home remedies but involuntary hiccoughs usually have no treatment available. This article talks about how can you cure hiccups naturally with simple home remedies for hiccups .1- Avoid drinking alcoholDrinking excessive amounts of alcohol causes dilation of blood vessels resulting in increased respiratory rate and heartbeat. These factors cause quick evaporation of water from body causing depletion of fluids leading to dryness of throat followed by painful sensation making us feel like gulping down some liquid. So avoid consuming any kind of liquors including wine etc while having meals otherwise it would lead to an increase in severity of hiccups. If you don’t want to miss out on your favorite cocktail or drink just follow these simple tips suggested below to prevent alcohol induced hiccups. Firstly try holding your breath before sipping each glass of alcoholic drink so that the effect of alcohol doesn’t affect you immediately after consumption. Also keep yourself hydrated all day long so there won’t be any chances of getting dehydrated which might eventually result into severe case of hiccups. However if you already suffer from chronically occurring hiccups make sure not to consume much amount of alcohol since this could only worsen your condition further.2– Drink cold waterWater contains hydrogen ions, thus when we drink ice-cold water we stimulate our parasympathetic nerves thereby helping us fight against hiccups instantly. One way of doing this is placing your mouth close to an open container containing ice-water which

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It is visible, that the bigger versions of the LLaMa models produce more useful answers while the smaller version's answers are of lesser quality and less factual correct.

Prompt IV: Peter is older than Tim. Tim is older than Robert. Is Peter older than Robert and why?

To demonstrate the logical skills of the model, here is another example:

LLaMa-65B

Yes, he is. Because if Peter was younger than Robert then it would mean that Tim is also younger than him which contradicts the fact that Tim is older than Robert.

LLaMa-30B

Yes, Peter is older than Robert. The reason for this is that Peter is older than Tim and Tim is older than Robert.

LLaMa-13B

Yes, Peter is older than Robert because he was born in 1980 while Robert was born in 1975.

LLaMa-7B

Yes he is. Because the age of a person is calculated from his birthday. The day when we are born is our birthday. So if someone was born on 1st January then their age will be one year old. If they were born in December then their age would be lesser by one month. And so on.

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All the models give the correct answer, but only the explanations of the 65B and 30B do make sense.

Conclusion

In conclusion, Large Language Models (LLMs) have revolutionized natural language processing and have become powerful tools in various applications The LLaMA 30B model, despite being approximately five times smaller than GPT-3 with 175B parameters, demonstrates comparable or even better performance. This shows that by optimizing the structure of LLMs, high-quality results can also be achieved with smaller models.

Large Language Models have proven their usefullness in natural language processing tasks, with LLaMA 65B and 30B standing out as a relatively smaller yet high-performing models.

Despite the LLaMA models are foundation models that were not specifically trained to follow instructions like ChatGPT, they can still be utilized effectively in chat mode just by providing a simple introduction prompt.

Furthermore, if you compare the LLaMa models with each other it is evident that the larger models generally outperform smaller ones in most tasks, offering higher quality answers in terms of factual correctness and language proficiency.

Fine-tuning LLaMA models to specific use cases is the next intriguing step. By customizing the model's training and parameters for particular applications, we can enhance its performance and tailor its responses to better suit specific user requirements. This fine-tuning process will likely unlock further potential and improve the overall usability of LLaMA models in various domains.

While this article has demonstrated how to run the model as a single user in a console, in our next article we will have a look into deploying the LLaMA model with a multi-user API. This advancement will enable more interactive and dynamic applications that can serve multiple users simultaneously.

As we progress, fine-tuning and multi-user capabilities will further elevate the potential of LLaMA models, making them even more valuable in diverse use cases.


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